cerana survival, populations in adjacent valleys are more likely to undergo genetic differentiation as a result of the blockage of gene flow. This study indeed showed genetic differentiation between A. cerana populations in different valleys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Based on the conducted PCoA and DAPC, A. cerana in different valleys showed obvious differentiation. Furthermore, the FST of microsatellites and mitochondria ranged from 0.04–0.29 to 0.06–0.76, respectively. According to Wright (Wright, 1978) and compared to other A. cerana research (Xu et al., 2013a; Yin and Ji, 2013), these results indicate population genetic differentiation. The highest reported elevation for a A. cerana population in the literature is 3250 m (Hepburn et al., 2001; Yang, 2001; Radloff et al., 2005). The observations of A. cerana at 3,040 m reported here are consistent with previously reported observations (Zhu et al., 2017). Based on this information, it could be inferred that the upper limit of the hospitable zone for A. cerana does not exceed 3,500 m. The valleys that were chosen in this study are separated by mountains with elevations > 4,000 m, such as the Boshula and Taniantaweng Mountains (Liu et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2016). Two main environmental characteristics are specific for this area. The first is that the area lacks vegetation, and is mostly covered by bare rock. In the eastern valleys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the lack of tree holes for nesting prevents A. cerana survival, thus blocking gene flow throughout the valleys. The resulting genetic differentiation between valleys suggests that nesting conditions are important ecological factors for A. cerana. Between valleys, nectar and pollen plants suitable as food sources for A. cerana have been found, along with bumblebees nesting in the ground. However, the apparent lack of suitable nesting places, such as caves or holes in tall trees, prevents the survival of A. cerana populations in such environments.
Genetic Range and Resource Preservation
Comparison of A. cerana in this study with other A. cerana shows their genetic differentiation, which reflects the special genetic structure and potential as germplasm resource of A. cerana in the alpine valley. The obtained samples show genetic differentiation with A. cerana from the Loess Plateau, the Qinling-Daba Mountains, and the Hainan Island as indicated by the FST value with an average is 0.14 in both utilized loci (Table S5) (Xu et al., 2013a,c; Guo et al., 2016). Similarly, the FST values between the samples of the current study and A. cerana from Changbai Mountains and Fujian Province ranged from 0.31 to 0.72 (with an average of 0.45) (Zhu et al., 2011; Yu et al., 2013). Genetic differentiation between the investigated samples and A. cerana in Guizhou is corroborated by FST values (with an average of 0.08) (Yu et al., 2017). Moderate or strong genetic differentiation was found in loci Ap085, AP313, Ac-2, Ac-5, Ac-26, Ac-1, Ac-35, UN117, SV039, BI314, K0715, AP243, AP066, AC011, AP189, BI225, UN244T, and AT004, which indicates that the investigated sample has a distinct genetic structure in these loci. These analyses indicate the special genetic structure of honeybees in the alpine valleys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is a consequence of selection and genetic drift influenced by long-time isolation. Therefore, A. cerana in the valleys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a unique and precious genetic resource.
The second is the current presence of plateau meadows
Regarding valleys of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the fresh new gene circulate regarding A good. cerana is very easily banned, resulting in genetic divergence one of populations. The latest range of those populations is relatively large; yet not, the brand new hereditary divergence anywhere between communities are lowparison with the exact same A good. cerana studies have shown that he ranges out-of 0.2066 so you’re able to 0.8305 (Chen ainsi que al., 2011; Ji https://kissbrides.com/it/blog/donne-asiatiche-vs-donne-americane/ ainsi que al., 2011), Pic range off 0.twenty-eight so you’re able to 0.81 (Cao ainsi que al., 2013; Xu mais aussi al., 2013a), Na ranges from one.81 to (Ji ainsi que al., 2011; Xu mais aussi al., 2013c), Hd ranges out of 0.171 to 0.905 (Zhou mais aussi al., 2012; Ren ainsi que al., 2018), and you can ? selections out of 0.00049 so you can 0.03034 (Zhou mais aussi al., 2012; Li et al., 2018). The genetic assortment each and every inhabitants checked-out within analysis is actually seemingly reasonable. This is primarily a direct result the result out of small society sizes (Xu ainsi que al., 2013b; Zhao ainsi que al., 2017). Environmental surroundings of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau decides the brand new sheer shipment out of An effective. cerana. Here, ecological products such height and nesting environments has actually reached the fresh new restrictions off suitability because of it variety. Under certain ecological restrictions, the active society size of An excellent. cerana may be lower than 500 colonies. At the confirmed mutation speed, that it results in reduced genetic variety due to the small wide variety men and women in almost any given population (Vrijenhoek, 1997; Amos and you may Harwood, 1998; Frankham mais aussi al., 2002; Ellis et al., 2006). New environmental surroundings of one’s valleys limitation the new expansion from small A great. cerana communities on the larger populations, which have results in reasonable genetic range.